Translation and visual cues: Towards creating a road map for limited English speakers to access translated Internet surveys in the United States


  • Mandy Sha Independent Consultant
  • Y. Patrick Hsieh RTI International
  • Patricia L. Goerman US Census Bureau


Translated internet surveys, website functionality visual cues, web pages, prenotification materials, accessibility, usability


This study seeks to provide a starting point in the survey translation and user experience literatures about facilitating entry to online survey questionnaires among limited English speakers in the United States. We present results from an assessment of prototype materials with limited English speakers: prenotification materials, survey entry pages, and informational web pages. We found that combining translation with common website functionality visual cues (tabs, hyperlinks, drop-down menus, and URLs) can help limited English-speaking individuals improve their experience using and accessing entry pages and informational web pages for government surveys. We also provide recommendations for continued research to develop translations and visual cues that are visible, clear, and linguistically and culturally appropriate. The ultimate goal is increased inclusion and accessability for hard-to-reach populations in online Federal surveys in the United States.